Birjand is one of the historical districts of Iran, which is located in the center of South Khorasan province.

The land may date back to pre-Islamic times and was destroyed several times by earthquakes since then. This city has seen many events during the Safavid, Afsharid, Qajar, and Pahlavi dynasties.

For this reason, Birjand can be identified with its historical monuments. Castles, reservoirs, schools, mansions, museums, and gardens of many different historical periods are presenters of the highs and lows of Birjand.

It is also interesting to know that Birjand had a water supply system before Tehran and is known as the first Iranian city to have urban water piping.

Well, the same thing goes for Zahedan too which is why no one knows which city was first. What they all have in common is that Tehran, the grand capital was not the first!


Special geographical conditions have made Birjand experience a semi-desert climate with hot and dry summers and cold winters. For this reason, many mountain ranges around Birjand have led to the formation and construction of various dams.

Darreh Dam, Alang Dam, and Omar Shah Dam are some of the most important dams in Birjand that host tourists as a natural attraction.

Fourteen Waterfall (14 or Chahardah Abshar in the Persian language) is a collection of waterfalls located in the south of Birjand and is one of the most beautiful natural attractions in this region.

As mentioned, Birjand is a historical city, so if you are interested in the history of Iran, we suggest you visit Birjand.

To reach Birjand from Tehran, you have to go through Garmsar and Semnan. It is about one thousand and 65 kilometers away from Tehran to Birjand. You can travel to Birjand by booking a flight from the international airport, using a private car, or getting a ticket from two passenger terminals. You can also go to Tabas by train and travel from Tabas to Birjand by car for 3 hours.


Birjand has been part of the Quhistan region in Iran. Quhistan is a mountainous district located in the south of Khorasan in the center of the Iranian plateau and the cities of Ferdows, Qaen, Tabas, Birjand, Kashmar, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Khaf, Gonabad, and Taybad complete the region.

According to historical documents, it seems that the Mongols and the Muslim Arabs were never able to capture Quhistan due to the special geographical conditions.

Birjand does not have a special language and only the dialect of the people of this city is different from other regions.

Birjandi dialect is one of the new Persian dialects, many features of the old Persian language can be seen in this dialect.

It seems that because of what we said about how the Quhistan district has been safe from some very life-changing events in Iran’s history, the Birjand dialect has not been touched. This city is in the desert and close to a mountainous region, and there have not been many attacks and clashes in it.

Since Birjand is a mountainous region with many mountains and deep valleys. So if you are a mountaineer, Birjand can be a good destination for you.

Due to the weather conditions of Birjand, the best time to visit Birjand can be considered as spring. Because in summer the temperature drops to 28 degrees and in winter to five degrees below zero.

If you travel to Birjand one day, do not miss visiting the historical monuments. Baharestan Citadel, known as the Crimson Garden, is one of the works of the Afsharid period.


One of the historical events of this Citadel was the refuge of Lotf-Ali Khan Zand and his other companions in this citadel when he was being followed by Mohammad Khan Qajar’s troops or was in war with him.

It seems that being away from everyone and everything, has made the historians confused with the accurate historical data.

The “Pergola Citadel”, which along with other places of interest in Birjand such as “Shoktieh School”, “Akbarieh Garden”, “Birjand Castle” has historical and cultural value, during the Qajar period and from 1264 to 1313 AH.

The mansion, which is said to have been designed and built by the government, was built using the government headquarters and covers an area of ​​approximately 700 square meters.

However, in the present era, this historical monument is used as the governorate building of South Khorasan province.

The builders of this national heritage have built it in the form of a ziggurat or stepped form, in six floors, with beautiful and remarkable architecture, and now it has been nationally registered as an ancient and valuable mansion by the Cultural Heritage Organization.

Other beautiful and historical attractions in Birjand include Showkatieh School, Akbarieh Garden, Birjand Bazaar, Showkatabad Garden, Khajeh Khezr Monument, and Cheshmeh Mulid Tower.

Since Birjand is part of the province of South Khorasan, so it is natural that local people in this region also wear the local clothes of South Khorasan.

The people of Birjand, like the people of other parts of Iran, are hospitable and respect for the elder is one of the basic principles in their culture and customs.


Many ceremonies in Birjand are performed like other parts of Iran. Among the most interesting customs of this beautiful city, we can mention the prayers for rain, Ramadan, Chavoshi, recitation, and mourning in Muharram and Safar.

Among these well-attended and meaningful customs of Birjand, Chavoshi recitation is one of the best ones. This ceremony takes place when a person intends to travel to Mecca or the holy shrines, and the chanters chase them away with a suitable, sorrowful voice.

The date of this recitation back to the Safavid dynasty when Iran became officially a Twelver and respected Muharram and Safar and pilgrim travels became more common. 

This is why the people of South Khorasan Province have long been engaged in making traditional musical instruments due to their love for music and how they could turn a simple story into a masterpiece.

People of Birjand make musical instruments and that could be count as their handicraft. Various types of Tar (String instrument), Santur, reed, and Daf.