In the prehistoric archaeology of Iran, pottery is one of the cultural phenomena and its role and composition as a symbolic and allegorical expression have been a means of transmitting various ideas and cultures.
With the beginning of urbanization, beautiful pottery with beautiful patterns became popular. Iran has a long and brilliant history in the field of pottery.
We know that when the Aryans set foot on the plateau of Iran, they had nothing to say against the civilization and culture of the natives of the Iranian plateau.
The art of pottery before the arrival of the Aryans in Iran, as opposed to what the Aryans later tried to register in their name was like a master’s work in front of a child handmade thing who has just learned to play with mud.
In the Sassanid dynasty, mold was used to prepare certain pottery materials and their decoration. Most of that decoration was used to revive the memories and culture of their time. The main decoration of this pottery was bergamot and scenes of hunting or royal ceremonies.
Samanid pottery from Nishapur and Samarkand shows the art of pottery, precision in elegance, and unique calligraphy, which are among the best works of pottery as well as the art of calligraphy.
Centuries ago, Iranian potters used ordinary clay. This pottery was usually red and beige. For example, painting on clay was more common in eastern Iran. While different styles of grooved and scratched decorations were dedicated to the western and northwestern regions. At first, however, such dishes were made with no delicacy.
Later on, the Potters (not Lily and James and certainly not Harry), found a coating of thin white glaze, which provided a suitable background for various decorative methods.
The potteries were covered with a thin ceramic glaze so that, if necessary, iron or copper oxides could be turned green or yellowish-brown, respectively. Some methods were common in all parts of Iran. pottery at first was art and then it became a sustainable industry.
For this reason, we cannot deny the emergence of the original glaze pottery in Iran. Centuries after pottery was just a red vessel, there was a change in the pottery industry and glazed pottery emerged in Iran, but until the discovery of Mashhad inscriptions and related plates dating to the early seventh century, no other goods have been seen as glazed pottery.
The paint and glaze is the shiny and transparent coating on the pottery, which gives the pottery unparalleled beauty and radiance. The use of paint and ceramic glaze in pottery, in addition to creating attractiveness and beauty, increases the strength and durability of pottery. And it has different types such as glossy or matte, transparent or opaque, smooth or even textured.
Lustre glaze enamel is a glazing method in which the pigment is applied in a secondary fire, at a temperature lower than the initial temperature, on the surface of a strong and heated glaze.
Luster glaze enameling of the late sixth century begins suddenly in Iran, and the best justification could be the arrival of Egyptian artisans. The exact similarities of some Iranian and Egyptian works strongly suggest the existence of such an impression.
The designs of the mythical animal, nature, and hunting are engraved on the luster glaze potteries.
The large bowls of the Ilkhanid and Safavid dynasties are made of the same components and parts. The appeal of this type of pottery affects humans more than its advanced nature.
Iranian taste overcame the Egyptian style in enameling, and since then these luster glazed pottery has changed to the favorite colors of Iranians, namely turquoise, green or roman-purple.
Kashan Style: As Kashan works show, pottery has been an indelible part of Kashan’s history even before the arrival of the Aryans until recent centuries. Tepe Sialk is one of the main sites for the archaeologist to extract pieces of pottery and assemble them and study. hence, they discovered that Kashan had singular teats and talent for pottery.
After the Egyptian artists, Kashan picked up the luster glaze enameling and added its ancestors’ skill in it and so there was a new luster glaze potteries designed to display the shade in its brightest and most elaborate form.
However, Iran’s capital of pottery is not Kashan, it’s Lalejin.
Lalejin is the most important center in the country, which has been home to this industry for some time. Lalejin is one of the tourist cities of Hamedan province, which is known as the pottery capital of Iran.
Lalejin pottery has various types, including functional and decorative utensils and various ceramics. On September 25, 2016, a celebration was held in Lalejin, which was the result of naming this city as the World City of Pottery.
This world record, as expected, led to the city’s economic growth as well as an increase in the number of tourists coming to the district.
The soil required for Lalejin pottery is sent to this village in the form of large and small clumps. After pounding, the clods are mixed in large troughs with water to form mud.
The resulting mixture is then filtered with a special sieve to remove impurities such as gravel. Then not touch it for a few days to harden a little.
After this time, and if the clay is suitable, use a long stick to create intersecting lines a few inches deep on the clay. Then the clay cracks from the existing lines and becomes bricks.
In the next step, the bricks are sent to different workshops and stored.
The stacked clays are flattened for use by two people, and this continues until the clays are completely ready. The prepared ones are then divided into smaller parts and formed into so-called sugar cubes. At this phase, the clay is completely ready for pottery.
Most pottery kilns are made of brick and They are divided into lower and upper parts. The lower part, also known as the oven, is where a large iron torch is placed.
Pottery in Iran is more than 10 thousand years old and has been able to become an industry to meet the needs of an artist, which is now a touristic attraction. Pottery is an integral part of Iranian culture that reflects the history of Iran well.