The great economic upheavals and the strategic and political situation of the Persian Gulf from ancient times to the present day have made the colonialists thirsty for presence and hegemony in the region and have made them try to always impose their policy on this region.
Hence, the Persian Gulf has always been the scene of conflict and battle, and its peripheral lands have also been affected by these conflicts. In such a way that the political and economic life of these countries is oriented according to the current issues and currents in the Persian Gulf.
The Portuguese first entered the Persian Gulf in 1506 AD under the command of the famous Portuguese sailor Albuquerque, and after a while, they completely occupied Qeshm, the islands of Hormuz and Gambron (Bandar Abbas). Imam Qoli Khan was one of the famous commanders of Shah Abbas I who fought with a strategy to free the islands and Bandar Abbas and thereby, he took the Persian Gulf back.
April 30 has been named the National Day of the Persian Gulf, which is the anniversary of the expulsion of the Portuguese from the Strait of Hormuz by Shah Abbas I Safavid and the Persian Gulf.
This large area of water with its islands and long beaches, the cradle of various civilizations, the center of cultural and commercial exchanges, and one of the most well-known and most famous seas in the world.
In the geography of Strabo, this sea is referred to as the Persian Gulf or the Persian Sea, and the sea between the Arabian Peninsula and the east coast of Africa (Egypt and Sudan), now called the Red Sea, is called the Arabian Gulf.
Names appear on maps and in authentic historical documents in a variety of languages, and research in any of the historical and geographical sources, the sea between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula, has no name other than the Persian Gulf.
Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr Al-Zahri, an Arab geographer, mentions the Persian Gulf in his book Al-Geography, which is almost a thousand years old:” The land route of the Egyptian people to Syria, Iraq and the Persian Gulf it is here (Sinai Peninsula).”
Indian Ocean water advance through the Sea of Oman and the Strait of Hormuz to the Zagros Valley, a crescent-shaped bay that is what exactly the Persian Gulf is.
It is said that its length has formed the “Persian Sea” or “Persian Gulf” east-west, which has been 900 km for hundreds of years and its average width is 250 km. Eight countries are located around the Persian Gulf.
This large area of water is located in the south and southwest of Iran, in the neighborhood of Khuzestan, Bushehr, and parts of Hormozgan provinces.
Countries like the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait, with different coastlines, other than Iran, surround the Gulf.
The Persian Gulf is essentially the remnant of the seas of the third geological period that covers the entire Zagros region. However, due to the declining water level of the oceans, not only has its water decreased, but according to some evidence on the seabed, it has also been completely dry at times.
The present Persian Gulf is a part of the land on which the ocean water has re-collapsed through the Strait of Hormuz.
However, this long depression is the result of the folding of the Zagros Mountains and due to its low level above sea level, it is submerged.
In the past, the Persian Gulf was larger than what it is today. The Mesopotamia and Khuzestan plains have been formed as a result of the filling of the northern part of the Persian Gulf by the alluvium of rivers that now have to travel farther inland to enter the bay.
The most important rivers that flow into the Persian Gulf are Karun, Karkheh, Dalaki, and Mond. Karun is the longest navigable river in Iran.
These rivers are located in a large part of the west, southwest, and south of the country and often originate from the huge Zagros Mountains.
The Persian Gulf has many important islands such as Khark, Kish, Abu Musa, Greater, and Lesser Tunbs, Lavan, Hengam, Lark, Hormuz, etc. Qeshm is the largest island of the Persian Gulf.
The Persian Gulf is a semi-enclosed sea between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula that runs through the Strait of Hormuz to the Sea of Oman and from there to the Indian Ocean.
In the National Atlas of Iran, the area of the Persian Gulf has estimated at around 225,000 square km, its length is 900 km2 and its width is 180-300 km2, and elsewhere it has a width between 185 to 333 km and an average depth of 25 to 35 m.
From Bandar Abbas to Faw estuary, Iran has 45.3% of the total coastline of the Persian Gulf, i.e. Iran has the longest coastline compared to other Persian Gulf countries.
There are several port cities on the coast of Iran that, in addition to their strategic importance, also have commercial and economic opportunities.
The ports of Khorramshahr, Abadan, Deylam, Bushehr, Bandar-e Deyr, Kangan, Asaluyeh, Lengeh, and Bandar Abbas are among the important centers of the country’s maritime connection with the world.
Some of these ports, such as Khorramshahr, Abadan, Bushehr, and Bandar Abbas are also important population and tourism centers of Iran.
The Persian Gulf, with its vast reserves of oil and gas and other exploitable resources and its export outside the region, as well as the existence of suitable and safe ways for trade exchanges, has always been considered by regional powers and colonial governments.
One of the reasons for the importance of this bay is the maritime trade and the existence of huge oil and gas resources underneath the Persian Gulf’s floor and all kinds of fish and shrimp.
The Persian Gulf is one of the most important centers for pearl fishing and breeding. The Strait of Hormuz, which connects the Gulf to the Sea of Oman, is one of the most important strategic places in the world.
The Persian Gulf is a name standing still and solid mentioned even in the oldest sources. Because it dates back to centuries BC and it represents Persia. The name of the land of the Iranian nation.