Hamadan Province in Iran
The Ancient Ecbatana
This province lies in the western areas of Iran. Mount Alvand with a height of 3574 meters above sea level is located to the south and southwest of Hamadan City. The altitude of this province and its location at the foothills of the Zagros and Alvand mountains results in heavy rain and snowfall.
This has caused many water springs to flow through this land. Gamasiabis the largest river of this province; it runs into the Karun River. These features have made this land rich in lawns and have made it an ideal place for nomad life and cattle breeding. Therefore, the economy in this province is primarily based on farming and husbandry, then on mining activities.
People of Hamadan are from different races and speak Persian, Azari, Luri, and Kurdish. These people are famous for their artistic taste. common handicrafts in this province include pottery, carpet weaving, shoemaking, and tannery. Hamadan is the connecting joint between the eastern and western main roads of Iran.
The oldest objects of ancient Iranian civilizations have been discovered in this land. Professor Ghirshman, a famous French archaeologist has, in his studies proved that the civilization of Hamadan dates back to 37 centuries BC.
The City of Hamadan
Median King Dialog or Deioces established the city of Hamadan in the 7th century BC. Median King Herodon, called this city Ecbatana (Hegmataneh). In a stone inscription of Assyrian ruler Tiglat-Pileser I, the city has been referred to as Anadana or Hamadan. in Elamite inscriptions this city was called Halmataneh, meaning “the land of Elamite kings.” This city was destroyed at the time of Nebuchadnezzar the Babylonian king. It was reconstructed and used as the temporary summer settlement of the royal family under the Achaemenes, Parthian, and Sassanid dynasties. The city flourished partly because it was located on the Silk Road. The streets and squares of the city are all derived from one central square.
This hill is located in the ancient city of Ecbatana and contains objects belonging to the Median, Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sassanid dynasties as well as those belonging to the Islamic area.
Ganjnameh Stone Carvings
Ganjnameh stone inscriptions have been carved on rocks of the Alvand Mountain 5 kilometers west of Hamadan. The inscriptions are written in Old Persian, Babylonian, and Elamite languages in 3 columns, each contains 20 lines belonging to Darius and Xerxes, kings of the Achaemenes dynasty.
Stone Lion Statue
This statue is located in a park and a square called sang Shir in Hamadan City. This statue is 2 meters long, 1.5 meters wide, and 1.2 meters high. This statue was put at the entrance gate of the city. Some historians believe it was built at the order of Alexander the Great, as a memorial to one of his brave soldiers. Arabs later called that gate Bab Ol-Sad.
Nushijan Fire Temple
This fire temple is located 60 kilometers south of Hamadan and 20 kilometers west of Malayer. Archaeological studies revealed the domination of three different dynasties: The Medians, Achaemenes, and the Parthians. It was built during the Medians era in 8 century BC. The temple which was used for indoor worshipping and prayers consists of a fireplace, central part, rooms, tunnels, warehouses, and a castle.
Esther and Mordecai Tomb
This structure, which is made of brick and stone, is similar to buildings of the Islamic era. it is located in the city center of Hamadan. This is the tomb of Esther, the queen of Susa, who was the wife of Ahasuerus (Xeroxes I) and Mordecai was her uncle. A memorial structure was built on their graves 11 centuries ago by the Jewish community. The present structure was built on the old one in the 12th century CE.
This square structure which is the tomb of two family members of the Alawite dynasty was built in the late Seljuk dynasty. It was restored during the Mongolian era. The sides are 8 meters long and contain a lot of beautiful plasterwork.
this is the most famous waterfall of Hamadan province located near the city of Hamadan in a public resort. The river falls from a height of 12 meters and flows through the beautiful valley of Abbas Abad, Ganjnameh, and passes by the ancient stone inscriptions.
Agh Gol Lagoon
This lagoon which is within the district of the Gharachay river is located south of Nahavand plain nearby Kord Khurd village. This lagoon is 5 kilometers long, 3.5 km wide, and 50 centimeters deep. The wonderful vegetation and its closeness to Kot Mountain have made it a perfect habitat for migrating birds from Russia, Caucasia, and Scandinavian countries. geological studies show that this lagoon is more than 40 thousand years old.
Gamasiab Water Resource
This water resource which is the source of the Gamasiab river is located on the road from Nahavand to Nur Abad and Lorestan and originates from the northern foothills of Grove Mountain near the city of Nahavand. Its wonder lies in the severity of water flow.
Ibn Sina Tomb
Also known by his Latinized name Avicenna, Abu Ali Hussain ibn Abdullah Ibn Sina (980-1037 Ce) is a famous Iranian scientist, philosopher, physician, and polymath. his tomb is located in Hamadan City in a land with an area of 3090 square meters and 1792 square meters in the footage of the building.
The structure is similar to the great tower of Gonbad Kavus with some small modifications. Materials used in this structure are bricks, concrete, and stone. There are two gravestones in the structure. One of them belongs to Ibn Sina and the other one belongs to Abu Saeed Akhook. This is a square tower with a dome on top and a height of 28.5 meters to the street level.
The Mausoleum of Baba Taher
Baba Taher, the great poet, and mystic of the 9th century is famous for his couplets in the Luri dialect. His tomb is located on top of a hill northwest of Hamadan city. this structure was restored during different dynasties. In the 13th century CE, a hexagonal brick structure was built on his grave. This new structure was also restored during the time of Reza Shah Pahlavi.
This cave which is one of the most beautiful natural phenomena in Iran is located 80 kilometers north of Hamadan City at the foothills of Subashi Mountain. the river has many sub canals and halls. These are connected through natural tunnels. There is a large lake that has been formed by joining currents of water inside the cave. Numerous stalagmites have bestowed a unique beauty to the cave.
The most brilliant handicraft of this province is pottery, tile, and ceramic making. The center of these activities is the town of Lalehjin located 30 kilometers from the city of Hamadan. It is almost 7 centuries old. There are 700 active workshops and 10 to 15 percent of the products are used in the province and the rest are exported to other provinces and countries.
Historical and Religious Attractions:
Shah Tahmasb and Soltani Mosques, and Abdullah Ibn Musalkazem and Seyedan shrines in Asad Abad, A’zam and Sheikh Ali Khan mosques and Mehrabad and Naser shrines in Toyserkan, Sheikh Ol-Muluk Mosque, and Gorgan and Zobaydeh Khatun shrines in Malayer, Friday Mosque and Dokhaharan shrine in Nahavand and Nazarbeyg and Peyghambar mosques and Khezr and Azna shrines in Hamadan.
Pir Soleyman lagoon in Asad Abad, Simineh Rud recreational district in Bahar City, Estakhr Sarab or Sarab Pool, Tarīk Darreh ski resort, Ghezel Arsalan and Kuchal hunt sites, Afshar springs in Toyserkan, Kucheh Chang Almas recreational Area in Kabudar Ahang, Sardeh and Garmeh Mountains in Malayer, Kord Khord lagoon and Kuh Gero and Kuh Zard recreational sites in Nahavand, Ganj Nameh Waterfall and recreational Places of Abbas Abad, Moradbeyg, Kalagh Lan, and Darreh Diun valleys, and Alisadr cave in Hamadan.