Kermanshah Province in Iran
Kermanshah city is the capital of Kermanshah Province, which is located in the western part of Iran. Kermanshah is the largest and central city in the west with a population of almost one million people. Kermanshah developed in the 4th century AD under the patronage of the Sassanid. The city is situated on the foothills of the Zagros mountain range, 525 km southwest of Tehran. This province has a lot of natural and historical sightseeing, especially in the city of Kermanshah and the towns around.
Kermanshah enjoys a temperate climate and regular seasons. The people of Kermanshah are hospitable, warm, and friendly. The languages spoken by the people are Farsi and Kurdish. The beautiful nature, together with its people’s dialects and their spiritual and religious characters makes the province substantially unique in the region. This city has a rich history of culture and civilization, possessing monuments illustrating its people’s values for life and humanity throughout historic and prehistoric periods.
Land of Heros
The province is located in a mountainous region and the Zagros Mountains cover most of its area. The climate in the eastern part is temperate and in the western areas, it is hot and semi-dry, as the land is near the plain of Mesopotamia. It is a perfect location for nomads as it contains rich grassland and there is plentiful rain and snowfall. From the earliest times, there have been two common lifestyles in the area. The first is migrating nomad life based on husbandry and the second is the country life based on agriculture. The economy in this area is based on three activities: husbandry, agriculture, and industry. Common handicrafts of the province include carpets, rugs, druggets, coarse blankets, etc.
People in this province are Kurds, Laks, and Azari, they all have their languages. According to historical evidence and stone inscriptions, especially the famous stone tablet called Anobanini in Sar-e Pol-e Zahab, civilization in this province dates back to 1600 Bc. The first signs of settlement can be traced to the Lolubi people which were a local Iranian ethnic group living in Sar-e Pol-e Zahab before the Aryans entered the land of Iran.
The complex is situated northeast of Kermanshah. This is an ancient monument consisting of carved stones and stone tablets dating back to the Sassanid dynasty. With a view of mountains, springs, and flowing water, this place is a perfect resort for visitors. This area used to be a sports park for Sassanid rulers. The carved stones and stone tablets belong to Ardeshir II, Shapur II, Shapur III, and Khosro Parviz.
The mountain has been called Baghestan or Bisotun in different eras. This mountain is located by the road of Hamadan to Kermanshah near the city of Bisotun. The most important historical monuments are the Bisotun cave, Bisotun stone tablet, Small Tablet, Darius stone carving, the statue of Hercules, Parthian Gudarz II stone carving, Valash Parthian carving, Safeh carving, the tomb of Fartash, the Parthian structure, the Khosravi bridge, the Old Castle, the Sassanid road, the town of Chamchamal, an Il-khan caravanserai, Safavid bridge, Safavid caravanserai and ancient graveyards.
In the heart of the Bistun Mountains, a tablet has been carved by the order of King Darius of the Achaemenid dynasty in three different languages, Old Persian, Elamite, and Akkadian. The inscription dates back to 522 Bc. The tablet tells the story of two and a half years of Darius’ struggles for ascending to the throne. The tablet is one of the most valuable historical remains from ancient times.
The City of Kermanshah
Kermanshah is one of the oldest cities in Iran. Some historians believe it was built at the time of Bahram, a king of the Sassanid dynasty. This city flourished during the time of Ghobad I and Anushirvan of the Sassanid dynasty. This city has always been a focus of attention throughout history because of being located on the Silk Road.
The remains of the Anahita temple are located on the top of a stone hill in Kangavar town. In Iranian mythology, Anahita was the divinity of waters. The Anahita temple has four sides, each 230 meters long and in some parts, they are 18 meters wide. There are two stairways next to a wall on both sides of the building looking exactly like the stairways of Takht-e Jamshid (Persepolis). This temple dates back to the time of the Parthian Kingdom.
Some archaeologists can see similarities between this type of architecture and Greek architecture, but most archeological and scientific findings indicate that it is an Achaemenid structure. On the eastern side, a graveyard belonging to the Parthian era has been found. The deceased are buried in rock graves facing the temple.
Stone Tomb of Sarab Sahneh
Also locally known as Gur Dakhmeh Shirin and Farhad, the tomb is situated north of the town of Sahneh, east of the region of Darband. This tomb is known as the tomb of Kei Kavus to older local people, As the tomb of Fartash to younger people, and as the tomb of Farhad and Shirin to archeologists. This tomb dates back to the Median era, 725 to 550 B.C.
Dakhme Dokan Davud Grave
Three kilometers southeast of Sar-e Pol-e Zahab, there is a grave called Dokan Davud. At the bottom of the cellar, there is a stone carving, depicting a man who has raised one hand as a sign of respect and the other like a gesture as if he is saying prayers. This stone carving dates back to the Median era.
Tekiye Moaven ol-Molk
This place is located in the center of Kermanshah and consists of three parts, an Abbasieh, and Hoseinieh, and a Zeinabieh. There are two yards and a building in the middle. The walls are covered by colorful and designed tilework. The designs show faces of religious and civil figures mostly from the Qajar era. Some of the designs show religious and historical figures. Examples include Prophet Solomon (Soleyman Nabi), the Karbala desert, the Ashura event, and the legend of Rostam and Sohrab.
Ghuri Ghaleh Cave
Among the oak forests of Oramanat and Pave 90 kilometers away from Kermanshah city, there is a cave known as Ghuri Ghaleh which is 3140 meters long. This is the longest water cave in Asia. This cave starts from Ghuri Ghaleh village and continues to Iraq. There are beautiful halls with colorful golden, dark brown, tan, and white walls. There are also curved columns, waterfalls, and stalagmites as the unique characteristics of this cave.
Niloofar Water Resource
This wonderful site is located 30 kilometers northwest of Kermanshah. This plain is a big pool full of morning glory flowers.
Abudabajeh and Baba Yadegar Mausoleums in West Eslam Abad, Khosravi, and Mian Rahan bridges, Lahjir, Lay Bazero, and Lamrovan Castles, Ghurbagheh and Ahangaran hills in Sahneh, Dakhmeh Dokan Davud related to the Orators period and Anobanini Portraits belonging to 2800 BC in Sar-e Pol-e Zahab. Sassanid Palace attributed to Khosro Parviz and Jush Khuri Palace of the Sassanid era in Ghasr-e Shirin, Tagh Bostan Complex including Sassanid era monuments, old bazaar of the city of Kermanshah, Juda, Shol Maran, Guin, and Rostam Abad traditional hills, Sari Aslan Castle, and Asghar Khan, and Hassan Khan Ancient baths, and brick bridge in the city of Kangavar, Figures and tablets from Cyrus the Great in Kuh-e Bisotun, Figure of Hercules and its tablet, stone lion in Harsin are of the most important historical monuments of Kermanshah.
Paveh Friday-prayer Mosque, Pir Katan, Dadeh Baktar, Mahmoud, Seyed Ebrahim, and Seyed Jalal holy Shrines in Sahneh, Dolatshah, Shahzadeh, Emad -Dowleh, and Feyz Abad Ancient Mosque in Kermanshah, Emamzadeh and Jame’ mosques in Kangavar.