Sistan and Baluchestan Province in Iran
About Sistan and Baluchestan Province
The province of Sistan and Baluchestan is located in the South-East of Iran country. This covers an area of 181,578 km2, and it is the largest province in the Islamic Republic of Iran. From the South, the province has a coastal border with the Oman Sea. In the East, it borders Pakistan and Afghanistan. On the North, it is bordered by the Southern Khorasan Province and on the West, it borders Kerman and Hormozgan provinces.
The province has 7 main cities, namely, Zahedan (the capital city), Zabol, Khash, Saravan, Iranshahr, Nikshahr, and Chabahar. There are several smaller cities also which are scattered throughout the province. This province has special significance in the area because of being situated in a strategic and transit location, especially Chabahar which is the only ocean in Iran and the best and easiest access route of the middle Asian countries to free waters.
Zahedan city as the center of Sistan-Baluchestan is the neighborhood of Khorasan province in the north, the province of Kerman in the west, and in the south is within the limits of the townships of Iran Shahr and Khash. Zahedan has a tropical type of climate in the south, but to the north, it is comparatively moderate.
The land of Legendary Heroes
Sistan and Baluchestan consist of two distinct parts of Sistan and Baluchestan. The two parts are different in terms of natural features. Sistan to the north of the province is a flat plain and Baluchestan to the south is a mountainous area. The only river flowing in this land is the Hirmand. The river originates from the Baba Mountains in Afghanistan and flows to Hamun lake. The Khash and Chabahar regions are the most beautiful parts of the province that enjoy mild climate because of being located near the Oman Sea.
Based on the documents found in the excavations in the Burnt City of Zabol (Shahr-e Sukhteh Zabol), the civilization in this province dates back to 3100 to 1900 BC. In the Achaemenid period, this province was the region warehouse for the entire land of Iran. All kings and rulers of different eras have paid specific attention to this land as it has been the connecting route of the east and west. The local people are usually from two races of Sistani and Baluchi. The people are mostly involved in husbandry activities with some forms of nomad life.
This city is located at 60 km distance to the south of the city of Zabol, 6 km to Ghaleh Rostam. The city has an area of 2.5 square kilometers and contains hills with a height of 50 meters. The civilization in this area dates back to 3100 to 1900 BC.
The mountain which is one of the most valuable historical places of this province is located in the middle of Lake Hamun. It has a height of 900 meters and the remains of a palace and a temple with beautiful plasterwork and paintings belonging to the Parthian and Sassanid dynasties have been discovered. The shrine of Khajeh Ghaltan, Pir Gandom Berin, and a graveyard are also located there.
Dahaneh Gholaman Hill
This ancient hill which is located at 44 km distance to ghaleh No has a height of 28 meters. Some monuments belonging to the Achaemenid era have been discovered during archeological excavations.
Traditional clothing of the people in any region is directly related to their culture and geographical features. Clothing also shows the beliefs and artistic tastes of the people of a region. Various colors are used in the traditional clothing of the province’s local people. Men’s clothing consists of a shirt, an outer garment, a white turban, a thick belt, hand-made socks, and shoes with an upward curve at the toe. The Baluchi men’s clothing consists of a turban, white thin trousers which are put in the socks, and a simple outer garment that sometimes is decorated with silk work. The women’s clothing consists of a wide collar blouse and an outer garment with shoes similar to those of men’s.
Chabahar Free Economic Zone
Chabahar is situated in the southern-most part of the province on the shores of the Sea of Oman. The town was formerly called the Tis port. Today is one of the most important free economic zones of Iran.
This lake is a suitable shelter for different rare species of plants and animals. The vegetation of this lake provides a perfect hiding habitat for different species of fish as well as birds such as eagles, hawks, and other hunting birds.
This kind of crocodile which is unique to this region lives in the shallow waters of the sarbāz river.
The Desert of Sistan
The Lut desert, one of the hottest and driest deserts of the world, covers a large part of the province. The Lut desert in Central Iran stretches about 200 miles (320 km) from northwest to southeast and is about 100 miles wide. In the east, a great massive of dunes and sand rises, while in the west an extensive area of high ridges is separated by wind-swept corridors. In its lowest, salt-filled depression less than 1,000 feet (300 m) above sea level, the summer heat and low humidity are believed to be unsurpassed anywhere.
Spidej, Dast Mohammad Khan, Pip, Fīruz Abad, Heriduk, Bazman, Daman, Maskutan, and Chehel Dokhtar ancient castles in Iranshahr, Shahr-e Sukhteh (Burnt City) holding ancient structures and artifacts, Tasuki and Dahaneh Gholaman hills, and Teymur and Zabol and Ghasem Abad Mill in Zabol City, Sam Castle, and Rabat Shurgaz in Zahedan, Ghasr Ghand ancient castle in Chabahar, Kelar Tak ancient hills, Rubahak, Mahtab Khazaneh, Mir Omar Passage and Sib Castle in Saravan
Hakim and Sharifi Mosques in Zabol, Friday-prayer and Shiite mosques in Zahedan, Gholam Rasuli shrine in Chabahar, Dar ul-Olum Mosque, and Ancient Mosque in Saravan.
Kenti, Tang, Hurrian, Meskan, Tasht, Jamshid, Spidej, Puzeh, Dabbagh, and Bazman hot springs, and Katoukan Mine, Bazman Preserved Area and Bampur Forest in Iranshahr, Ziarat, and Yar Mohammadi Springs, Keshman and Gurband Promenades in Zahedan, Dushing, Shargh Taftan, Zang, Morghab, Torshab, Ganj Amin, and Barab mineral water springs, and the Taftān Park in Khash, and Nakhl Saravan Forests.