South Khorasan Province in Iran
About South Khorasan Province
South Khorasan Province is located in the east of Iran and is limited to Razavi Khorasan from the north, Sistan and Baluchestan, and Kerman from the south, Yazd, Semnan, and Isfahan from the west, and has about 331 kilometers shared boundaries with Farah state, Afghanistan from the East. The center of the province is Birjand. The other major cities are Ferdows, Tabas, and Qaen. Considering uneven areas, South Khorasan can be divided into two parts: High mountains and plains. Mountains are mostly located in the northern and central regions of the province and the plains are in the south and southwest, next to the Afghanistan border.
“Nayband” mountain in Tabas with 2980 meter height is the peak of the province while “ Tabas Kavir Dehestan” with a 530-meter height from the sea level is the lowest region. The province climate is desert and dry. The province’s hot period is long. It is started from May and prolong up to September. The cold months are October, November, and December. South Khorasan is also considered to be one of the biggest centers of producing saffron, barberry, jujube, cotton, and pomegranate. This province has a higher potential compared to other provinces in terms of mineral resources. As this area has a special climate, it never tempted invaders a lot to attack it. That’s why the people’s language and race have not been under great changes. Hence, Fars and Farsi have been the dominant race and language, respectively, the formal race and language become untouched.
Land of the Red Gold
In the east of Iran and on the borders of the Lut desert, there is a small province that produces more than 60 percent of the world’s saffron. Other products of the province include barberry and jujube. Southern Khorasan is the land of pure people with white clothes. Their music also reflects their simplicity and serenity.
Planting saffron using old traditional methods has been common in this province from ancient times. In addition to its medical and edible uses, Saffron has been used for painting and as ink for writing. It has also been used to illustrate the cover of the Quran as well as writing prayers.
Kolah Farangi Building
The structure is located in Birjand city with an area of 677 square meters on 6 floors and the form of a Ziggurat. Two floors were used for special occasions and the other four were built to shape a decorative form for this building. It dates back to the Zand dynasty in the 17th and 18th centuries CE. The interior decoration includes mainly plasterwork.
Akbarieh House and Garden are one of the historical buildings in Birjand. This building was built on two floors in the Qajar era by Shokat al-Molk. This garden is at the end of Moallem Street in Akbarieh village in Birjand which is the center of southern Khorasan. With the expansion of Birjand, now the garden is located inside the city. This monument includes a mirror hall, pergola dome, honeycomb Muqarnas decorations, and official schemes that were merely for catering to domestic and foreign political agents.
This village is located 83 km southwest of the town of Birjand in an area called Khusf. The historical architecture of this village has been greatly influenced by the geographical features of this area. The houses are made of mud. Architectural features include domes, central yards, hexagonal rooms with corridors, thick walls, pools, and small gardens.
The city of Nahbandan, one of the most beautiful cities of southern Khorasan, is located in the Lut desert in the south of the city of Birjand. One of the most wonderful sites of the city is Dehsalam village, on the road of Kerman to Sistan in the southwest of the city of Nahbandan. Although this village is located in the desert, there is a thick vegetation and lots of palm-tree gardens which have increased the beauty of this region.
As the south Khorasan borders the desert with hot and dry weather conditions, there is a special kind of vegetation, proper for this region. Jujube trees can perfectly adapt to the environment of this region. It uses little water and has got green leaves during five months of the year, in spring and summer. The small red fruits which have medical usages are picked in September. These trees are found mostly in the eastern parts of the province.
Khezri Stone Bridge and Farsan Cave
Farsan stone bridge is located in the 62-kilometer distance of Qayen town, the 12-kilometer distance of the north of Khezri town, and in the 2-kilometer distance of the east of Saquri village. In terms of leisure, this promenade has a very suitable condition. Stone bridge with 30 meters of length and a 20-meter height alongside several other small and large caves is the shelter of birds of prey, especially wild dove.
Shah Abbasi Taq has the highest record among the historical buildings in Iran! A dam with 60 meters’ height that not only is called the oldest and greatest arch dam in the world but also has been known for 550 years as the highest dam in the world. However, Shah Abbasi Dam has another name that no other dam has ever been able to gain. The thinnest dam in the world is due to the one-meter dam crest.
Morteza Ali Hot Spring
To visit this amazing place, it must pass Tabas City and 5 more kilometers on foot most of which passes through water to reach Morteza Ali Fountain! There are high valley-shaped walls on both sides, on which there are small and big cavities in a specific order. Some of these cavities are hot springs of water, the greatest of which is known as Morteza Ali Bath. The first spring called Ghanbar flows from the east to west (following the slope of the valley) and it is cold. Having passed 6 kilometers, Morteza Ali Fountain appears. The cause of hot water is fracture and pressure in the faults.