In the condition of Iranshahr, perhaps the first thing that catches the attention of the audience is the name of this city. Iranshahr is a new name for this region of Sistan and Baluchestan province. But the word itself in the Sassanid period referred to the whole country of Iran.
Each word alone can show us a realm of information and historical developments. In the Old Persian language, the Achaemenid period, the word Dahyaum referred to the entire kingdom. What is left from that world in the New Persian language is Deh, which no longer represents a large land but refers to a small village.
But the word Shahr gradually became so great that it covered the intact geography of Iran. Iranshahr is a very ancient name and a representative of all Iran that Sistan and Baluchestan province has kept alive today.
Iranshahr, the third most populous city in the province, is located in the heart of the Baluchistan region. Its distance to the Zahedan is about 345 km.
Iranshahr is known as the city of 72 Nations because different ethnicities like Birjandi, Sistani, Turks, Lor, Kurds, North, Isfahani, Yazdi, and Kermani coexist. They have come to a mutual understanding of one another.
The oldest historical texts that mention Iranshahr are Greek and Latin historical sources. They refer to Iranshahr as Pareh or Fahreh. The ancient name changed to Iranshahr in 1929 when Reza Shah Pahlavi’s troops entered the city.
Archeologists have traced human settlements around Iranshahr. As Shahr-e Sukhte was a perfect civilization, they saw signs of long-liven life in sites such as Bampour, Khorab, and Espidezh.
Also, the existence of several castles in this city shows its prosperity and value in different periods. The construction of a castle dates back to the Sassanid period, and the Naseri castle belongs to the Qajar dynasty.
Iranshahr occupies 15% of the province. It is bounded on the north by Zahedan and the west by Bampour, and the south by Chabahar.
The climate of Iranshahr, like the rest of the province, is hot, dry, and sometimes sultry, which is very much affected by the region’s winds. The average temperature is 45 degrees in summer and 2 degrees above zero in winter. Of course, other climatic conditions of this region include sandstorms in the west and southwest of the city.
After a decade of drought in Iranshahr, marginalization has increased in this land. A high percentage of Iranshahr’s rural population are nomads, who generally live in Siyah-Chador (black tents) and huts made of palm leaves.
The people of this region make a living from agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing, handicrafts, and trade.
The majority of people in Iranshahr follow Islam and the Sunni sect, and only 10% are Shiites.
The language of the people of this region is Baluchi, which is common in the district but with different dialects and, like Gilaki and Kurdish languages, is an old version of the Persian (Pahlavi) language.
You can visit Espidezh Cemetery, the remains of Ladizian culture, Mullah Soleiman cave, Bampour river, Meksan hot spring, Ketokan mineral hot spring, Hudian hot spring, Bampour castle, Daman river, Nasseri Castle, and Iranshahr Market.
Iranshahr Castle or Naseri Castle is in Iranshahr city of Sistan and Baluchestan province. According to contemporary texts and historians, Nasser al-Dawla Farmanfarma, who ruled Kerman and Baluchistan during the Qajar dynasty in 1285 AH, suggested Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar build a large military fort in Fahraj or Pahre. The construction began in 1885 by one of the most talented and famous architects of Kerman named “Master Hussein Memar Bashi Kermani” and ends after seven years.
Since then, like any other building built in the age of Naser al-Din, they named this fort after him the Naseri Castle. The old and massive fortress of Bampour was the headquarters of Balochistan, but after they finished the new Castel, they moved the political means there.
Bampour River is one of the permanent and water-rich rivers of Balochistan, which originates from the Karvander heights, 120 km northeast of Iranshahr. The main tributaries of the Bampour River are Caravander, Irandegan, and Daman. After watering the surrounding fields on their way, they all reach the Bampour Dam. The Bampour river continues until it flows into the Jaz Murian dunes.
Esfand or Pura waterfall is one of the fascinating and unknown waterfalls in Sistan and the Baluchestan province that remains full of water in all seasons.
Pura in the local language means full of water. This waterfall is 9 meters long and is the only waterfall in the Delegan region and west of Sistan and Baluchestan Province.
Esfand river upstream of the village has created Esfand or Pura waterfall on its way. The depth of the waterfall sometimes reaches more than three meters. Many tourists come to visit this masterpiece of nature. They have given the title of the jewel of the desert to the Esfand waterfall. It is spectacular scenery in the heart of a hot desert to find such an elegant waterfall.
Iranshahr Daily Markey is one of the tourist attractions and sights of this city. In this market, all kinds of goods are there at reasonable prices. It has a fabric store of the best quality fabrics available in the country. This market is open every day.
Espidezh Cemetery is 5000 years old and belongs to the prehistoric period of ancient Iran. Historians divide the Espidezh Cemetery into two eras, one from the Middle Bronze Age to the beginning of the Iron Age and the other from the Iron Age to the second millennium. The findings include the prehistoric period, the historic eon, and the Islamic era.
The excavation of this five-thousand-year-old cemetery has revealed advanced technology and rich civilization in Iranshahr. Once there were inhabitants in this region of Sistan and Baluchestan province who were ahead of their time.
For those people buried in the ground for five thousand years, what difference does it make to be behind the glasses of a museum or be the object of pass the parcel game and go from one place to another? We need to know how our ancestors lived.